Spring 2023 Update
March 8, 2023 Update – Coyote Pupping Season Begins
Spring signals the start of coyote pupping season, which typically extends to fall. Though coyotes are seen year-round in the Presidio, spring is when coyote parents are active around and protective of their den site.
As in recent years, we expect this year’s pups to be born in late March to early April and the den site to be located somewhere in the center of the park. We’ve placed signs around the Presidio – especially along trails where coyotes have been active in previous years – to raise awareness about coyote pupping season.
To reduce the potential for coyote/dog conflict, beginning on Monday, March 13, we’re proactively closing large sections of the Park Trail and the Bay Area Ridge Trail to dog walking (see map below). This annual closure is temporary; we’ll reopen these trails to dog walking in fall after pupping season ends. All 24 miles of hiking trails in the Presidio are open to people – download our Trail map for all trail options.
Note: dogs must be on leash at all times in the park. If you’re with your dog and you encounter a coyote, the best course of action is to quickly leave the area. If the coyote follows, be assertive and aggressive (e.g., forcefully throw weighted objects at the coyote) while continuing to walk quickly away. Do not run. Dog walkers should stay aware of their surroundings and carefully read posted signage.
We’ll continue to monitor coyotes in the Presidio and post updates to this page as needed. Should you have questions or wish to report an incident of concern, contact the Wildlife Hotline at (415) 561-4270 or
email@example.com. We’ll respond to all incident reports.
If You Encounter a Coyote in the Presidio
Coyote sunning in the Presidio. Photo by Georgie DeAntoni.
Keep your distance; do not approach the coyote.
Keep your dog on a leash and under your control.
Observe posted signs about coyote activity in the park.
Supervise children when outdoors.
Never attempt to feed a coyote. Do not leave human or pet food outside where coyotes might eat it. Presidio residents should put garbage out on the morning of pickup instead of the night before (containers need to be at the curb by 6 am). To get a bungee for your trash bin from Recology, call (415) 330-1300 or
firstname.lastname@example.org. If you encounter a coyote
within 50 feet and the coyote does not move away on its own, here are ways you can haze/intimidate the animal to help it retain a fear of humans:
Be as big and loud as possible; shout in a deep, loud, and aggressive voice.
Wave your arms and throw small objects (to scare, not injure).
Maintain eye contact, which makes them uncomfortable and timid.
If the coyote continues to approach, do not run or turn your back on the coyote, but continue to exaggerate the above gestures while backing away slowly. Report this type of incident to (415) 561-4270 or email@example.com.
If you encounter a coyote during pupping season (spring through fall) AND you have a dog with you, the best course of action is to back away slowly and leave the area immediately. Coyotes will attempt to drive away other coyotes and dogs from their pups, and hazing may not work.
Background: About Coyotes in the Presidio
Coyote near the Ecology Trail. Photo by Georgie DeAntoni.
After a long absence, coyotes returned to the Presidio in 2002 and are now seen regularly in the park. They're also seen in Marin, Golden Gate Park, Lands’ End, Glen Park, and other open spaces throughout the greater Bay Area.
In 2003-2004, the Presidio Trust began working with other Bay Area agencies to develop strategies to help us assess wildlife behavior and determine appropriate responses. Our management actions range from public education to hazing/intimidation to ensure the animal retains its fear of humans to – under very rare circumstances – lethal removal of a coyote evaluated and determined to be a threat to public safety.
Within a claimed territory, only one pair of coyotes will breed. This bonded male and female are long-term residents of the territory and known as the alpha pair. The pair vigilantly patrols their territory in order to keep non-resident coyotes out. The alpha pair remain bonded together for life.
Coyote pupping season usually runs from spring to fall. Typically, as part of the coyotes’ complex social structure, year-old pups are driven from the parents' territory, and the resident population – those that remain in the Presidio long term (e.g., the alpha pair) – remains stable. That said, it’s difficult to know precisely how many coyotes are in the Presidio at any given moment given that individual coyotes can move considerable distances in the course of a single day.
What We’ve Learned About Presidio Coyotes from our Research
The goals of the Coyote Management program are to:
Help minimize dog/coyote conflict.
Help us learn more about the resident coyote population in the Presidio so we can improve our management strategies and reduce coyote and dog/human conflict.
More accurately track the size of the coyote population by tagging individual animals.
Track coyote movement and activity patterns.
Improve our ability to identify an active coyote den site.
Assess the health and diet of coyotes.
Confirm the number of breeding pairs in the Presidio.
Assess genetics within the context of the larger Bay Area.
Learn about the movement and ultimate fate of Presidio-born pups.
With the assistance of urban wildlife managers and researchers across the country – including the National Park Service, United States Geological Survey, U.C. Davis, and the United States Department of Agriculture – the Presidio Trust developed a monitoring program using modern technology to improve the management of coyotes within the Presidio. It began in 2015 and involved humanely capturing, tagging, health screening, and attaching temporary GPS tracking collars to resident coyotes in the Presidio.
As part of this program, we tagged and temporarily collared sixteen coyote individuals. Fourteen of those animals were pups born in three different years/litters. All of those fourteen pups have since dispersed from the Presidio and we’ve tracked their journeys as they try to find their own territory elsewhere (see example dispersal map below). Many of these animals have not survived the harsh realities of urban traffic. Over the last seven years, we’ve collected sufficient behavioral data to effectively inform our management strategies. Our management efforts continue although we are no longer actively trapping the resident coyotes.
Dispersal Map: This map was generated from the GPS collar data on a young male that left the Presidio in fall 2016. His journey lasted about a month before he was killed by a car on Highway 280.
The Presidio's Current Coyote Population
Coyote adult with pup, summer 2022. Photo by Georgie DeAntoni.
We monitor Presidio coyotes by using colored ear tags and temporary GPS tracking collars, and use what we learn to help minimize conflicts between coyotes and dogs/humans.
Currently, there are two identifiable coyote individuals in the Presidio, the alpha pair. The alpha female has two red ear tags and a temporary tracking collar while her mate has not yet been tagged. Monitoring in 2022 confirmed three pups were born, and one is confirmed dead. There’s also a juvenile from last year helping to raise this year’s pups. In total, the Presidio family consists of about four animals.
In 2023, we expect to:
Continue to monitor animals in order to improve our coyote management strategies;
Continue our education and outreach efforts;
And continue analyzing the wealth of data we have been collecting through our partnership with UC Davis College of Biological Sciences and others.
Coyote Management Issues
Coyote behavior can change depending on the individual animal, the season (e.g., pupping), and the environment. When an issue is reported by the public, we gather as many details as possible. Understanding why an incident occurred will inform the management action. Issues are addressed on a case-by-case basis, and appropriate management tools are implemented in response (e.g., increasing signage, adding fencing, temporarily closing a trail, hazing an animal, etc.).
Abnormal behavior (e.g., food conditioning from being fed by humans – see above image) is important to identify and address as quickly as possible. Certain behaviors can be corrected through various methods (hazing/intimidation, etc.) but many abnormal behaviors are uncorrectable. If and when abnormal behaviors are identified and deemed a public safety threat, there are few options other than lethal removal (relocating coyotes is illegal in California and not an option). The unique ear tags reduce the potential for removing the wrong animal.
Something to keep in mind: as with other members of the biological family Canidae (including other extant and extinct dog-like mammals, such as domestic dogs, wolves, foxes, jackals, and dingoes) coyote behavior is shaped through experience. Coyotes in urban environments become gradually conditioned to urban stimuli and the constant presence of humans in populated areas. As a result, urban coyotes express behavioral plasticity – or the ability to change in response to their unique environment. Behavioral plasticity enables coyotes to be successful in urban areas.
Photo by Georgie DeAntoni.
For instance, an urban coyote hunting rodents in the grass may behave similar to an urban deer foraging on a lawn at dusk. An urban deer regularly sees humans, and though they may stop for a moment and assess the human presence, if it isn't approached by a human, it will continue foraging. Similarly, a coyote hunting rodents or meandering about its urban territory will appear confident, rather than timid, and will continue hunting unless a human asserts themselves toward the animal. Over time, urban animals gradually develop a heightened level of comfort with perpetual exposure to people and in the absence of threat.
This means a coyote exhibiting bold behavior in the presence of humans shouldn't necessarily be seen as aggressive behavior. Coyotes are extremely quick – they have excellent spatial orientation and often times will not feel vulnerable in the presence of humans at close distances in urban environments. This is important to keep in mind when you encounter coyotes in the Presidio, and when assessing abnormal and normal coyote behavior. However, if a coyote approaches humans, especially without a dog, this may indicate abnormal behavior (e.g., having been fed by humans in the past) and should be reported immediately.
As part of our Coyote Management program, we continue to monitor coyotes for changes in behavior, and inform the public about ways to reduce coyote and human/dog conflict. In addition to signage, flyers, and seasonal updates, our coyote outreach program has expanded to six local preschool/elementary schools and our community science project engages the public to gather information about how coyotes are using the park. These programs help us educate the public while developing programs where we can learn more from community observations.
Help Us Monitor Coyotes in the Presidio
Coyote howling near Inspiration Point. Photo by Georgie DeAntoni.
If you see a coyote in the Presidio, submit a photo and/or report the sighting via
iNaturalist through their app or website. If possible, try to identify the presence of ear tags. Note at least one of the colors (see images above). We regularly monitor iNaturalist for information on coyote activity, location, and other relevant information (e.g., what was the coyote doing when you observed it? Was it sleeping in the sun, hunting gophers in a field, etc.?).
We periodically post updates on this web page with information about where coyotes have recently been seen most frequently.
Learn More and Report Incidents of Concern
Frequently Asked Questions for simple steps you can take to minimize coyote and dog conflict within the park.
- Report any incidents of concern (such as aggressive coyote behavior or visitors feeding a coyote) immediately at (415) 561-4270 or